By Elija Chara
When ‘Naga’ is discussed, it begins with the primordial cosmology and then to colonial politics and armed conflict with India, by a romanticised desperate tribal group, for a modern state. Apart from this, there is limited focus to understand the Nagas’ national political philosophies and methodologies. The paper examines the theological interpretation of Naga nationalism. It first defines the features of the Naga nation, patriotism, nationalism and state, and then explores the history of national movement to locate the ideological discourses and conflicts that transformed to the origination of the Naga theo-political theme – ‘Nagalim for Christ’. At the heart of the examination is the Nagas patriotic psychology, national and spiritual dilemma, that attempts to bring about reconciliation among nationalism, armed conflict, political ideologies, theology and modernism, which is largely misinterpreted by outsiders. The positives and negatives of mixing nationalism and religion are critically examined to question the Nagas’ being on self-determination, at the same time attempt is made to understand if Naga nationalism’s onto-theological nature is a reconciliation, or escapade or for notification, or a forced consciousness.
By Annu Yudik & Satyapriya Rout
Since last two decades the North-East Region of India witnessed many environmental movements with similar goals and forms of mobilization that challenged government policies and actions. Many of them achieved their goal or objective whereas others’ failed. This paper is an attempt to understand the factors that determined the success and failure of those protest movement by employing rich detail of the four case studies from the region to make a systematic comparison. This paper employs qualitative case analysis based on primary and secondary sources.
Keywords: Environmental Movement, North-East Region of India, Political Opportunity Structure.
Changing Livelihood Pattern of Tribal Farmers in Tripura: A Study on Kuki Tribes
By Mrinal Kanti Deb, Arobindo Mahato & Joel Laltanpuia Darlong
During last two decades large scale of changes of livelihood pattern among Tribal farmers has been witnessed in Tripura. Especially, from Shifting (jhum) cultivation to Rubber cultivation or other farm activities. The study is an attempt to understand the changing pattern of livelihood among Kuki tribes and to measure the living standard of Kuki tribes keeping in view their changing livelihood pattern. The article also tries to understand the association between changing livelihood pattern and monthly income of respondents. The deal with objectives of the study before and after analysis has been done based on primary data with purposive random sampling. The study explored that after changing the livelihood pattern monthly income of respondents has been significantly increased along with overall living standard. The regression analyses found Rubber cultivation and Livestock rearing emerged as popular sources of livelihood as compare to Jhum cultivation.
By K B VeioPou
The Second World War made huge impact to the Nagas living in some quiet corners of India’s Northeast. When it finally made its way into the Naga Hills towards the beginning of 1944 the Nagas rudely woke up to a realization of what war could do to humanity. For the British the victory over the invading Japanese forces following the Battle of Kohima was ‘the most decisive’ one as it turned the tide of the war. Many historical accounts have been written about it, but have largely remained military accounts. When Easterine Kire’s Mari (2010) was published, it became an eye opener for many as it tells how the people of Kohima experienced a war that was not of their making and yet changed their lives forever. This paper will largely focus on why Mari is important not just for its depiction of the struggle of a death defying girl but for its historical account from a native perspective of the war. In addition this paper will also engage with another book, The Battle of Kohima (2007), a collection of stories from those who survived the war and what it meant to experience it. A relook at these narratives is important in the re-imagination of the past events and how such events shape the lives of individuals who lived through it.
By Partha Pratim Baruah & Bikash Deka
The Self-determination politics of the Karbi people centers primarily around issues of socio-cultural identity control over resources and political emancipation. Being a part of the partially-excluded area of the British India, this hill region of Assam has been witnessing political movement ranging from democratic students’ movement to violent militant movement since the post-independence period of India in one or the other form. Therefore, over the years there have been transitions in the political allegiance of the people in relation to the structural political domain of the state. The present paper aims to study the various phases of political transition in Karbi Anglong and the major issues advocated by the leaders for political mobilization of masses in each phase and also the latter’s response.
Ngamkhohao Haokip and Michael Lunminthang (eds.). Kuki Society: Past, Present, Future. Kuki Research Forum’s Publication, New Delhi: Maxford Books, 2011
Reviewed by Letminlun Khongsai
The book under review is the first of its kind undertaken by the Kuki Research Forum since its inception in 2009. It is the outcome of a seminar organised by Kuki Research Forum in collaboration with Kuki Students’ Organisation. The book contains a collection of twenty one articles written by Kuki-Chin scholars that deals with a variety of issues pertaining to history, culture, identity, language, religion, literature, politics, agriculture, status of women in the contemporary Kuki society. The volume throws light on the insights of the hitherto unnoticed issues and challenges particularly the socio-political-linguistic issues and the resulting complexities of identity crisis and dynamics of the society.
Business Opportunities with special reference to Northeast India and Realigning strategies towards the Look East Policy
By Paotinlen Chongloi
The present paper looks at the business and investment opportunities on two strata – at one level, we would analyse the business opportunities arising out of the policy support given by Government of India to the Northeastern region and later stretch the business opportunities and possibilities beyond the realm of Government support. Innovative services industry, creative and technology based business opportunities have been forged by entrepreneurs with unbound energy and right application of knowledge, technology and services.
By Paocha Gangte
As a part of introducing the subject, it will be appropriate to know why
the state of Manipur has been named as the ‘Home of the Braves’ and
here is a pen-picture of the same:
To the poet laureate of Manipur, it was –
Chingna kuoina panshaba;
Haona kuoina pan-ngakpa;
Manipur Sana Leimayol!
To the Imperial British Colonial Power, it was –
A Little paradise on Earth
And that must be colonised and preserved as keeps!
To the Invading Imperial Japanese Army, it was –
A Flower on the Lofty Height
That must be conquered for the sake of the
Advancement of Eastern Brotherhood!
To the Defending Allied Forces of WW II, it was –
A Strategically and Tactically vital place for
“A Springboard to Victory”, and therefore
Must be held at all cost and launch offensive
Against the Advancing Enemy!
To the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose, it was –
“A foot-hold that must be regained,”
And begin physical occupation of the land of Free-India, and must
therefore be recaptured as beach-head of Op Free India Campaign
Disrupted and Dislocated Livelihoods: Impacts of Khuga Dam on the Livelihoods of the Displaced People in Churachandpur, Manipur
By S. Thangboi Zou
This paper makes a micro study on the changing livelihoods of the Khuga Dam displaced communities in Churachandpur. It systematically assesses some of the crucial socio-economic constraints by evaluating the peoples’ responses to the changes that have occurred and their ways of adaptation and consequent impacts on the new environment. It is found out that large sections of the people had to adjust with the newly introduced means of livelihoods in their relocated settlements. The construction of the Dam had disrupted and dislocated the once stable means of livelihoods of the people and compelled them to turn to their immediate surroundings for minimum sustenance. Activities like clearing of forests for jhum, cutting and burning of woods for fuel and charcoal, have been largely intensified. Intense pressure has been put on the existing forests and ecological balances. It is questionable that the changed livelihoods of the people would be sustainable in the long run.
Belief in Malevolent Spirit “Inn-Kaose” in Traditional Religious System of Chin-Kuki: A Descriptive Analysis
By Paominlen Haokip
Belief in the existence of evil or malevolent spirits has been a commonplace feature of the religious belief systems of almost all known tribal societies. Though such a ‘belief’ remains a mystery, for it is not amenable to scientific, empirical explanation, it nevertheless constitutes an important feature of the religious belief system of such societies. In this paper, attempts have been made to provide a detail account of such a belief in evil or malevolent spirits amongst the ethnic ChinKuki groups of Manipur. To this end, specific focus has been given to the belief in a particular malevolent spirit known as Inn-Kaose in local parlance which is believed to be capable of causing human suffering, misery, and misfortunes. Based on in-depth interviews, the paper seeks to delineate the pervasiveness of the belief in Inn-Kaose and how it plays a pivotal practical role in structuring socio-cultural life of the community. It also brings out to the fore the different oraltraditions that explained the origin and evolution of the InnKaose/Lhagao-Boh evil spirits.