Changing Livelihood Pattern of Tribal Farmers in Tripura: A Study on Kuki Tribes

Changing Livelihood Pattern of Tribal Farmers in Tripura: A Study on Kuki Tribes

By Mrinal Kanti Deb, Arobindo Mahato & Joel Laltanpuia Darlong

During last two decades large scale of changes of livelihood pattern among Tribal farmers has been witnessed in Tripura. Especially, from Shifting (jhum) cultivation to Rubber cultivation or other farm activities. The study is an attempt to understand the changing pattern of livelihood among Kuki tribes and to measure the living standard of Kuki tribes keeping in view their changing livelihood pattern. The article also tries to understand the association between changing livelihood pattern and monthly income of respondents. The deal with objectives of the study before and after analysis has been done based on primary data with purposive random sampling. The study explored that after changing the livelihood pattern monthly income of respondents has been significantly increased along with overall living standard. The regression analyses found Rubber cultivation and Livestock rearing emerged as popular sources of livelihood as compare to Jhum cultivation.

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Remains of the Past: History, Diary, and Collective Memory of the Battle of Kohima, 1944

By K B VeioPou

The Second World War made huge impact to the Nagas living in some quiet corners of India’s Northeast. When it finally made its way into the Naga Hills towards the beginning of 1944 the Nagas rudely woke up to a realization of what war could do to humanity. For the British the victory over the invading Japanese forces following the Battle of Kohima was ‘the most decisive’ one as it turned the tide of the war. Many historical accounts have been written about it, but have largely remained military accounts. When Easterine Kire’s Mari (2010) was published, it became an eye opener for many as it tells how the people of Kohima experienced a war that was not of their making and yet changed their lives forever. This paper will largely focus on why Mari is important not just for its depiction of the struggle of a death defying girl but for its historical account from a native perspective of the war. In addition this paper will also engage with another book, The Battle of Kohima (2007), a collection of stories from those who survived the war and what it meant to experience it. A relook at these narratives is important in the re-imagination of the past events and how such events shape the lives of individuals who lived through it.

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Shifting Paradigm: Politics of Transition in Karbi Anglong

By Partha Pratim Baruah & Bikash Deka

The Self-determination politics of the Karbi people centers primarily around issues of socio-cultural identity control over resources and political emancipation. Being a part of the partially-excluded area of the British India, this hill region of Assam has been witnessing political movement ranging from democratic students’ movement to violent militant movement since the post-independence period of India in one or the other form. Therefore, over the years there have been transitions in the political allegiance of the people in relation to the structural political domain of the state. The present paper aims to study the various phases of political transition in Karbi Anglong and the major issues advocated by the leaders for political mobilization of masses in each phase and also the latter’s response.

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Ngamkhohao Haokip and Michael Lunminthang (eds.). Kuki Society: Past, Present, Future. Kuki Research Forum’s Publication, New Delhi: Maxford Books, 2011

Reviewed by Letminlun Khongsai

The book under review is the first of its kind undertaken by the Kuki Research Forum since its inception in 2009. It is the outcome of a seminar organised by Kuki Research Forum in collaboration with Kuki Students’ Organisation. The book contains a collection of twenty one articles written by Kuki-Chin scholars that deals with a variety of issues pertaining to history, culture, identity, language, religion, literature, politics, agriculture, status of women in the contemporary Kuki society. The volume throws light on the insights of the hitherto unnoticed issues and challenges particularly the socio-political-linguistic issues and the resulting complexities of identity crisis and dynamics of the society.

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Business Opportunities with special reference to Northeast India and Realigning strategies towards the Look East Policy

By Paotinlen Chongloi

The present paper looks at the business and investment opportunities on two strata – at one level, we would analyse the business opportunities arising out of the policy support given by Government of India to the Northeastern region and later stretch the business opportunities and possibilities beyond the realm of Government support. Innovative services industry, creative and technology based business opportunities have been forged by entrepreneurs with unbound energy and right application of knowledge, technology and services.

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Significance of Kuki Uprising

By Paocha Gangte

As a part of introducing the subject, it will be appropriate to know why
the state of Manipur has been named as the ‘Home of the Braves’ and
here is a pen-picture of the same:
To the poet laureate of Manipur, it was –
Chingna kuoina panshaba;
Haona kuoina pan-ngakpa;
Manipur Sana Leimayol!

To the Imperial British Colonial Power, it was –
A Little paradise on Earth
And that must be colonised and preserved as keeps!
To the Invading Imperial Japanese Army, it was –
A Flower on the Lofty Height
That must be conquered for the sake of the
Advancement of Eastern Brotherhood!
To the Defending Allied Forces of WW II, it was –
A Strategically and Tactically vital place for
“A Springboard to Victory”, and therefore
Must be held at all cost and launch offensive
Against the Advancing Enemy!
To the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose, it was –
“A foot-hold that must be regained,”
And begin physical occupation of the land of Free-India, and must
therefore be recaptured as beach-head of Op Free India Campaign

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Disrupted and Dislocated Livelihoods: Impacts of Khuga Dam on the Livelihoods of the Displaced People in Churachandpur, Manipur

By S. Thangboi Zou

This paper makes a micro study on the changing livelihoods of the Khuga Dam displaced communities in Churachandpur. It systematically assesses some of the crucial socio-economic constraints by evaluating the peoples’ responses to the changes that have occurred and their ways of adaptation and consequent impacts on the new environment. It is found out that large sections of the people had to adjust with the newly introduced means of livelihoods in their relocated settlements. The construction of the Dam had disrupted and dislocated the once stable means of livelihoods of the people and compelled them to turn to their immediate surroundings for minimum sustenance. Activities like clearing of forests for jhum, cutting and burning of woods for fuel and charcoal, have been largely intensified. Intense pressure has been put on the existing forests and ecological balances. It is questionable that the changed livelihoods of the people would be sustainable in the long run.

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Belief in Malevolent Spirit “Inn-Kaose” in Traditional Religious System of Chin-Kuki: A Descriptive Analysis

By Paominlen Haokip

Belief in the existence of evil or malevolent spirits has been a commonplace feature of the religious belief systems of almost all known tribal societies. Though such a ‘belief’ remains a mystery, for it is not amenable to scientific, empirical explanation, it nevertheless constitutes an important feature of the religious belief system of such societies. In this paper, attempts have been made to provide a detail account of such a belief in evil or malevolent spirits amongst the ethnic ChinKuki groups of Manipur. To this end, specific focus has been given to the belief in a particular malevolent spirit known as Inn-Kaose in local parlance which is believed to be capable of causing human suffering, misery, and misfortunes. Based on in-depth interviews, the paper seeks to delineate the pervasiveness of the belief in Inn-Kaose and how it plays a pivotal practical role in structuring socio-cultural life of the community. It also brings out to the fore the different oraltraditions that explained the origin and evolution of the InnKaose/Lhagao-Boh evil spirits.

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Women Empowerment and Self Help Group: An Analytical study of Constraints in Karbi Anglong District of Assam

By Sanjay Kanti Das

Empowerment in the context of women’s development is a way of defining, challenging and overcoming barriers in women’s life through which she increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP) of the government of India is designed to alleviate poverty and empower women of the country. However, the success of this SBLP is often debatable. Today large scale disparities in the implementation and proliferation of SHG formation are major concern. A few studies are made on impact assessment of SBLP in Northeast India. This study focuses on the constraints in empowerment of Karbi women in Karbi Anglong district of Assam.

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Hoineilhing Sitlhou, Deconstructing Colonial Ethnography: An Analysis of Missionary Writings on North East India, New Delhi: Ruby Press, 2017

Reviewed by Ngamtinlun Touthang


Deconstructing Colonial Ethnography: An Analysis of Missionary Writings on North East India by Hoineilhing Sitlhou is an attempt to critically analyse the writings of protestant Christian Missionaries in North East India during the 19th-20th centuries. The western missionaries along with the colonial administrators left rich written lit- eratures on local cultures, society and history which continue to play an important role in defining the history of the people of North East, especially tribal communi- ties. Earlier writings on Christian missionaries, especially by Christian writers, fo- cused mainly on how western missionaries arrived and spread the gospel in the North East, a region largely occupied by, as they termed it, ‘barbaric’, ‘savage’ and ‘uncivilised’ tribes. Local church leaders often compared the coming of Christianity as the arrival of ‘light’ to this dark world. Missionaries were considered God sent to save the ‘heathen’ people of North East.