Remains of the Past: History, Diary, and Collective Memory of the Battle of Kohima, 1944

By K B VeioPou

The Second World War made huge impact to the Nagas living in some quiet corners of India’s Northeast. When it finally made its way into the Naga Hills towards the beginning of 1944 the Nagas rudely woke up to a realization of what war could do to humanity. For the British the victory over the invading Japanese forces following the Battle of Kohima was ‘the most decisive’ one as it turned the tide of the war. Many historical accounts have been written about it, but have largely remained military accounts. When Easterine Kire’s Mari (2010) was published, it became an eye opener for many as it tells how the people of Kohima experienced a war that was not of their making and yet changed their lives forever. This paper will largely focus on why Mari is important not just for its depiction of the struggle of a death defying girl but for its historical account from a native perspective of the war. In addition this paper will also engage with another book, The Battle of Kohima (2007), a collection of stories from those who survived the war and what it meant to experience it. A relook at these narratives is important in the re-imagination of the past events and how such events shape the lives of individuals who lived through it.

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Shifting Paradigm: Politics of Transition in Karbi Anglong

By Partha Pratim Baruah & Bikash Deka

The Self-determination politics of the Karbi people centers primarily around issues of socio-cultural identity control over resources and political emancipation. Being a part of the partially-excluded area of the British India, this hill region of Assam has been witnessing political movement ranging from democratic students’ movement to violent militant movement since the post-independence period of India in one or the other form. Therefore, over the years there have been transitions in the political allegiance of the people in relation to the structural political domain of the state. The present paper aims to study the various phases of political transition in Karbi Anglong and the major issues advocated by the leaders for political mobilization of masses in each phase and also the latter’s response.

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Business Opportunities with special reference to Northeast India and Realigning strategies towards the Look East Policy

By Paotinlen Chongloi

The present paper looks at the business and investment opportunities on two strata – at one level, we would analyse the business opportunities arising out of the policy support given by Government of India to the Northeastern region and later stretch the business opportunities and possibilities beyond the realm of Government support. Innovative services industry, creative and technology based business opportunities have been forged by entrepreneurs with unbound energy and right application of knowledge, technology and services.

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Significance of Kuki Uprising

By Paocha Gangte

As a part of introducing the subject, it will be appropriate to know why
the state of Manipur has been named as the ‘Home of the Braves’ and
here is a pen-picture of the same:
To the poet laureate of Manipur, it was –
Chingna kuoina panshaba;
Haona kuoina pan-ngakpa;
Manipur Sana Leimayol!

To the Imperial British Colonial Power, it was –
A Little paradise on Earth
And that must be colonised and preserved as keeps!
To the Invading Imperial Japanese Army, it was –
A Flower on the Lofty Height
That must be conquered for the sake of the
Advancement of Eastern Brotherhood!
To the Defending Allied Forces of WW II, it was –
A Strategically and Tactically vital place for
“A Springboard to Victory”, and therefore
Must be held at all cost and launch offensive
Against the Advancing Enemy!
To the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose, it was –
“A foot-hold that must be regained,”
And begin physical occupation of the land of Free-India, and must
therefore be recaptured as beach-head of Op Free India Campaign

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Disrupted and Dislocated Livelihoods: Impacts of Khuga Dam on the Livelihoods of the Displaced People in Churachandpur, Manipur

By S. Thangboi Zou

This paper makes a micro study on the changing livelihoods of the Khuga Dam displaced communities in Churachandpur. It systematically assesses some of the crucial socio-economic constraints by evaluating the peoples’ responses to the changes that have occurred and their ways of adaptation and consequent impacts on the new environment. It is found out that large sections of the people had to adjust with the newly introduced means of livelihoods in their relocated settlements. The construction of the Dam had disrupted and dislocated the once stable means of livelihoods of the people and compelled them to turn to their immediate surroundings for minimum sustenance. Activities like clearing of forests for jhum, cutting and burning of woods for fuel and charcoal, have been largely intensified. Intense pressure has been put on the existing forests and ecological balances. It is questionable that the changed livelihoods of the people would be sustainable in the long run.

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Belief in Malevolent Spirit “Inn-Kaose” in Traditional Religious System of Chin-Kuki: A Descriptive Analysis

By Paominlen Haokip

Belief in the existence of evil or malevolent spirits has been a commonplace feature of the religious belief systems of almost all known tribal societies. Though such a ‘belief’ remains a mystery, for it is not amenable to scientific, empirical explanation, it nevertheless constitutes an important feature of the religious belief system of such societies. In this paper, attempts have been made to provide a detail account of such a belief in evil or malevolent spirits amongst the ethnic ChinKuki groups of Manipur. To this end, specific focus has been given to the belief in a particular malevolent spirit known as Inn-Kaose in local parlance which is believed to be capable of causing human suffering, misery, and misfortunes. Based on in-depth interviews, the paper seeks to delineate the pervasiveness of the belief in Inn-Kaose and how it plays a pivotal practical role in structuring socio-cultural life of the community. It also brings out to the fore the different oraltraditions that explained the origin and evolution of the InnKaose/Lhagao-Boh evil spirits.

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Women Empowerment and Self Help Group: An Analytical study of Constraints in Karbi Anglong District of Assam

By Sanjay Kanti Das

Empowerment in the context of women’s development is a way of defining, challenging and overcoming barriers in women’s life through which she increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP) of the government of India is designed to alleviate poverty and empower women of the country. However, the success of this SBLP is often debatable. Today large scale disparities in the implementation and proliferation of SHG formation are major concern. A few studies are made on impact assessment of SBLP in Northeast India. This study focuses on the constraints in empowerment of Karbi women in Karbi Anglong district of Assam.

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Extremist Upsurge in Bangladesh Politics

By Rajendra Prasad Patel

Bangladesh is the third largest Muslim populated country in the world and is known for its strongly secular and syncretic culture, robust socioeconomic growth, booming trade and worker remittances, and among the most success- ful rural credit networks in the world. But the country is facing severe chal- lenges from violent Islamist groups because the role of Islam in Bangladeshi politics is high contested, and it has been a focal point, and polarized political climate and institutional repression of Islamic parties have enhanced radicalization dynamics and country has become an emerging breeding ground for violent extremism. Over the past years, 30 people belonging to minority communities, mainly Hindu have been murdered by machete wielding radi- cals. They had also not spared Muslim secular writers, publishers, and bloggers for raising their voices against extremist ideology. These murders accompa- nied the startling news of ISIS recruiters arrested in Dhaka. Bangladesh has a long history of political and electoral violence that have shaped its political culture, protest, boycott and intense oppositional politics are defining a fea- ture of Bangladesh‘s authoritarian and democratic era. The two political events are closely interconnected for the recent rise of violent extremism in Bangladesh, first, the elimination of the caretaker government and secondly, implementation of the war crime tribunal. And that has led to political con- flict between the Awami League (AL), and Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) has resulted in high level of violence and brutal state response. This paper will analyze the major causes of the rise of extremist groups and democratic governance, and inclusive politics can help mitigate the risk of rising extrem- ism in Bangladesh.

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Plight of Truck Drivers at NH 37 during Economic Blockade in Manipur: A Grave Concern of Human Security

By I. Yaipharemba

Manipur is a land lock state which depends on existing National Highways for importing essential commodities and transportation of materials entirely rest with the incumbent trucks. Highways remain only passes through which, in addition to essential commodities, traveller undertake bus journey to train station like Dimapur or Guwahati. The Tupul-Imphal train line is at construc- tion phase and will take some more years to complete. Jiribam has also lim- ited train service. On air connectivity, Imphal has an airport that is well con- nected with metro cities but bringing essential commodities by aircraft is very limited, as a result highways are very important for the state for flow of com- modities. In a nutshell, average Manipuri depends on road for journey to other states of Northeast and commodities required. By its significance nature ex- isting Highways are the life line for people of Manipur irrespective of Hill or Valleymen. Due to fragile ethnic-political conditions that prevail, the state is prone to bandhs and economic blockades initiate by parties for one or another reason. During economic blockade, vehicular traffic at the Highways is to- tally shut down by supporters and violent attacks at good laden trucks and drivers frequently take place. The truck drivers suffer the most when assaults were inflicted during the journey. The assaults generally damage or destroy vehicles and cause financial issue for the drivers. During normal days, essen- tial items are brought at NH 2 Dimapur-Imphal which is short and well con- structed as compare to NH 37. The NH 37 for Manipur is 220 km in length and is single lane with severe road conditions. However, due to frequent and prolong blockade, essential materials including petroleum products, medical items, eatable etc are brought through NH 37 Jiribam-Imphal with police pro- tection regardless of violent assault from blockade supporters and bad road. The truck drivers thus, play a live saviour role in the critical situation by bringing goods to capital city Imphal, facing numerous odds. Time and again, during blockade while escorting, there is wide presumption that police pro- tection are inadequate and insensitive. Drivers feel the security cover is not enough and more materials can be transport in, if frequency of security convoy is increase. The study attempts to establish the complexities suffer by truck drivers integrating the fundamental of Human Security that concerns with individual safeguarding. This paper is a noble effort of recounting the relentless efforts of unrewarded truck drivers at the mad road ahead.

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Effectiveness of Health Workforce and Manpower Deployment in Health Care Institutions in North-East India

By Farhat Hossain

The effectiveness of skilled health workforce is most influencing factor to the health status of the population and its ratio to population across space and regions. This paper explores the availability of health care institutions as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) norms and the nature of shortfall and surplus of health workforce in accessing health care services to the people of North-East India. The region is considered to be one of the economically depressed regions in India and has low health workforce-population ratio and unskilled due to absence of training centres. Health Care Institutions consists of Sub-Centres (SCs), Primary Health Centres (PHCs) and Community Health Centre (CHCs) that provide complete health care delivery to the population. The deficit of health care institutions is very high in densely populated states like Assam and it is favourable in lower density states i.e. Arunachal Pradesh. The numerical deficits are greatest in case of specialized doctors and numerical surpluses realised for Para-medical staffs which is likely to affect adversely the utilization of health care services in CHCs in North-East India. The co-efficient of variation for health workforce shows that the regional disparities is widening and worsening because of uneven health workforce availability in the health care institutions.

Key Words: Health workforce, Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS), Sub-Centres (SCs), Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres (CHCs)

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