Notes on type of land ownership and indigenous
agricultural methods of the Bondo Community

By Abhijit Mohanty

The interaction between human being and nature has always been reciprocal. This is apparently evident in tribal communities where there always exist a symbiotic relationship between their livelihood pursuits and the surrounding natural resource base like the forest, land, and water, out of which land is one of the vital source of livelihood for them. Agriculture followed by collection of minor forest produces are major sources for their sustenance. The present paper was an attempt to understand the pattern of land ownership and indigenous agricultural methods of the Bondo community found only in the Khairput block of Malkangiri district of Odisha. The study clearly depicts that, among the Bondo, land is considered as the most valuable tangible assets and categorised under individual and community ownership. With the age old practices, the Bondo has developed their own indigenous technique to cultivate different crops in a range of land. Hence, it is imperative to meticulously study these indigenous methods of agriculture practice by the Bondo community one of the particular vulnerable tribe of India.

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A study on implementation status of Forest Right Act, 2006
at the national and state levels and its recommendations

By Abhijit Mohanty

Implementation of the Forest Rights Act, 2006 (FRA) in India provides an interesting insight to the people especially who are concerned about the Rights of Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest dwellers on land and forest resources. Peoples’ rights over forest resources are being recognised under FRA in an inclusive manner for the first time in independent India which has been widely appreciated not only throughout the country but also across the world. Within 6 years of the enactment of FRA in the country, a number of impediments came at the implementation level. In this regard a series of research work has been done by various likeminded organisations and researchers which clearly states many reasons responsible for the slow progress of the act, but there is no doubt that it has already initiated a positive change in the forest landscape of the country. Hence, it is imperative to meticulously analyse the status of implementation of Forest Right Act at the national and state level with particular reference to Odisha. This paper reflects the issue that confronts smooth implementation of FRA at various levels including recommendations that will be helpful to materialise the fruitful implementation of FRA in its true spirit and letter.

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