Distribution of Ethnic Groups in Manipur Hills

By S. Thangboi Zou

The study of ethnicity goes beyond searching for its definitions and characteristics. Exploring the geographical pattern of ethnic groups is an interesting shift in the study of conventional and contemporary social sciences. This paper aims to analyse the nature of classification and spatial distribution of the ethnic groups in Manipur hill areas between 1991 and 2001, when the hills witnessed two ethnic conflicts during these decadal censuses. As per an official record, three tribal groups –Naga, Intermediate and Kuki-Chin-Mizo are found in the State. Internal dynamics on the discourse of ethnicity has different narratives on the ground reality. In terms of spatial distribution, the Naga group is more clustered than its counterpart Kuki-Chin-Mizo across the hills. The paper also looks into how the change in spatial pattern of distribution and redistribution of ethnic groups has largely contributed to ethnic homogenization in the hill areas of Manipur.

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Disrupted and Dislocated Livelihoods: Impacts of Khuga Dam on the Livelihoods of the Displaced People in Churachandpur, Manipur

By S. Thangboi Zou

This paper makes a micro study on the changing livelihoods of the Khuga Dam displaced communities in Churachandpur. It systematically assesses some of the crucial socio-economic constraints by evaluating the peoples’ responses to the changes that have occurred and their ways of adaptation and consequent impacts on the new environment. It is found out that large sections of the people had to adjust with the newly introduced means of livelihoods in their relocated settlements. The construction of the Dam had disrupted and dislocated the once stable means of livelihoods of the people and compelled them to turn to their immediate surroundings for minimum sustenance. Activities like clearing of forests for jhum, cutting and burning of woods for fuel and charcoal, have been largely intensified. Intense pressure has been put on the existing forests and ecological balances. It is questionable that the changed livelihoods of the people would be sustainable in the long run.

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